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Host Variety. Originally regarded as to be host particular (Tucker, 1931), it has considering the fact that been proven that P . capsici can infect quite a few other plant species together with cultivated crops, ornamentals, and native vegetation belonging to far more than 15 plant people (Satour and Butler, 1967 Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996 Hausbeck and Lamour, 2004 Tian and Babadoost, 2004 French-Monar et al. , 2006 Granke et al. , 2012). It is a important threat to the essential crop plant family members Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae (Hausbeck and Lamour, 2004).
Before long soon after its identification in 1922, P . capsici was described to infect eggplant ( Solanum melongena L. ) (Cruzi, 1927). Phytophthora capsici was 1st documented to infect cucurbits when Kreutzer (1937) isolated P .
capsici in a discipline of cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. ). 3 a long time later, the pathogen was claimed to infect muskmelon ( C . melo L. ), summer months squash ( Cucurbita pepo L. ), and tomato ( S .
lycopersicum L. ) (Kreutzer et al. , 1940 Wiant and Tucker, 1940). In addition to members of the people Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, and Solanaceae, Satour and Butler (1967) uncovered the once-a-year crops of okra ( Abelmoschus esculentus L. ), safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L. ), and spinach ( Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste and Reyn. ) as properly as onion ( Allium cepa L. ) (Leu and Kao, 1981) are hosts of P. capsici .
Moreover, woody perennial crops these types of as apple ( Malus pumila Mill. ) (Wiant and Tucker, 1940), avocado ( Persea americana Mill. ) (Tompkins and Tucker, 1937), black pepper ( Piper nigrum L. ) (Tsao et al. , 1985), cacao ( Theobroma cacao L. ) (Zentmyer et al. , 1977), fig ( Ficus carica L. ) (Katsura and Tokura, 1955), Fraser fir ( Abies fraseri Pursh. ) plant identification lab (Quesada-Ocampo et al. , 2009), macadamia ( Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche) (Hunter et al. , 1971), papaya ( Carica papaya L. ) (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996), peach ( Prunus persica L. ) (Tompkins and Tucker, 1937), and rubber ( Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. ) (Erwin and Ribeiro, 1996) are also host species. Most of these isolates most likely belong to evolutionarily unique species and can no for a longer period share genetic information and facts by using mating with the vegetable strains (Donahoo and Lamour, 2008). Pathogen Distribution. After its to start with identification, P . capsici was swiftly regarded through critical manufacturing areas in the United States. Next New Mexico, the pathogen was recognized in California (Tompkins and Tucker, 1937, 1941) in the 1920s, in Colorado (Bodine, 1935 Sandsten, 1939), Florida (Weber, 1932), Arizona (Brown and Evans, 1933), and New York (Wiant and Tucker, 1940) in the thirties, Texas in the forties (French-Monar et al. , 2009, New Jersey in the 1960s (Barksdale et al. , 1984 Parra and Ristaino, 1998), Hawaii in the 1970s (Hunter et al. , 1971), and in South Carolina (Quesada-Ocampo et al. , 2011), Michigan (Hausbeck and Lamour, 2004), and Illinois (Babadoost, 2000) in the 1990s.
Right now, P. capsici is probable recognized in just about every condition (Hausbeck and Lamour, 2004 Quesada-Ocampo et al. , 2011 Granke et al. , 2012). FIGURE 1.
Progressive world wide distribute of Phytophthora capsici from very first identification in New Mexico, United States in the early 1900s by way of to 2017. The international locations that are white in shade could have P . capsici however, no experiences pinpointing the pathogen have been revealed.
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